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Freight Dictionary

All Freight Terms

Accessorials are extra fees for services that go beyond basic shipping.

Imagine you need a package picked up from a location without a loading dock.

A truck with a special liftgate might be needed to load the cargo, and this service will cost more.

These are not included in the standard shipping rate.

For example, if a truck driver has to wait longer than expected to unload cargo, there could be an additional fee for this time.

Other services, such as fuel surcharges due to current fuel prices or lifting heavy items with a gate, may also require accessorial charges.

It is a normal practice in the industry, even the United States Government is subject to accessorial charges.

Think of accessorials as an à la carte menu in freight shipping – pick what you need, but each comes with its price tag.

An air suspension system uses air springs instead of traditional steel springs to support vehicles.

This technology benefits trucks and trailers by helping them maintain a steady ride height regardless of the load weight.

The flexible design lets drivers adjust for a softer or firmer ride as needed, improving overall vehicle stability.

Air suspensions are vital in managing heavy loads in commercial vehicles, ensuring goods arrive safely at their destination.

Air ride systems also serve an important role in sports suspension for some cars.

They provide smoother rides by absorbing road bumps better than rigid steel springs can.

This keeps cargo secure during transit and reduces the chances of rust or moisture damage, as less vibration shakes the freight around.

An axle is a structural component that supports a wheel or set of wheels and connects brakes and suspension.

Axles have been used for thousands of years to transport goods and people.

Early axles didn’t have a drive or power unit, but with the invention of the steam engine, drive axles were developed.

These new axles propel vehicles forward or backward while bearing the vehicle’s weight.

Backhauling means moving goods on a return trip, especially in trucking.

After delivering a shipment, trucks fill up new cargo for the return home.

This cuts down on empty miles and saves money.

There are two main types of backhauling: internal and external.

With internal backhauling, companies move their goods to their places of origin or another destination they own.

External backhauling involves carrying another company’s products on the return journey.

Waggon provides external backhauling services superior to all other shippers and carriers.

Efficient delivery routes planned out for these trips maximize delivery capacity without wasted runs or excess fuel consumption, leading directly to how businesses can fully leverage backhauling.

A bill of lading is a critical legal document in shipping and logistics.

It is a contract between the person sending goods and the freight carrier detailing what’s being shipped and where it’s going.

This paper proves that the carrier has received the cargo and outlines how it should be handled during its journey.

Think of it as a ticket for your goods, ensuring they arrive safely at their destination.

This document also plays a significant role in international trade, acting like a passport for your merchandise.

It ensures that all parties know exactly what is being transported, preventing confusion or shipment disputes.

Blind shipping conceals a shipment’s origin from its recipient, obscuring the supplier’s identity.

This strategic move keeps supply chain roles discrete while ensuring business relationships are undisturbed.

It’s an innovative layer of confidentiality in logistics, where shipments go incognito to safeguard all parties’ interests.

Blocking and bracing use wooden beams and metal bars to keep cargo from moving inside a shipping container.

Wooden blocks stop the load from shifting side to side or front to back.

Metal bars, or braces, prevent it from moving up and down.

This method is vital for securing cargo during transport and ensuring that goods arrive safely at their destination without damage.

Proper blocking and bracing are the foundation of safe cargo transportation.

Bobtailing: Bobtailing occurs when a tractor unit operates without an attached trailer, commonly during return trips or while relocating the tractor.

A boxcar is a type of enclosed railcar primarily used for freight transportation.

Although it is not the simplest design for a freight car, it is noted for its versatility, as it can accommodate various loads.

Box trucks, also known as straight trucks or cube trucks, are critical players in the transport industry.

They have significant cargo areas on a single frame, making them great for safely moving many goods.

These vehicles are perfect for shipping large items, commercial products, and anything that needs to stay safe while on the road.

They have features that simplify loading and unloading, helping with various shipments.

Box trucks are vital for supply chains and useful for movers and courier services alike.

A freight broker connects businesses that need to transport goods with carriers that provide shipping services.

This professional can identify the most efficient transport methods for various items.

Their goal is to foster effective collaborations between shippers and carriers, which can lead to cost savings.

As an intermediary, the freight broker coordinates the shipping process, handles negotiations, sorts out specifics, and informs clients about their cargo’s status.

This role allows businesses to divert their attention to other essential activities as the freight broker navigates the complexities of logistics.

Bulk freight is transporting large volumes of goods not packaged in containers but loaded directly onto vessels or trucks.

These materials often include coal grains, iron ores, natural gas — and, on occasion, construction materials.

The action of compensating for carbon dioxide emissions from industrial or other human activities by engaging in programs to achieve equivalent carbon dioxide reductions in the atmosphere.

This process means determining the company’s pollution output and helping fund projects that lower carbon dioxide, such as planting trees or starting renewable energy projects.

Doing this allows companies to own up to their environmental impact.

Many different types of projects get support from carbon offsets.

Some examples include bringing back forests and putting solar panels in places where people don’t have clean energy.

These efforts aim to reduce greenhouse gases in the air, trying for a net-zero effect.

By joining in, businesses help fight climate change while focusing on cutting their emissions over time.

CO2e Avoided: CO2e avoided represents the estimated reduction in emissions achieved by consolidating freight shipments, preventing the release of carbon dioxide equivalents into the atmosphere.

CO2e Neutralized / CO2e Offset: CO2e neutralized or offsetting is the process of matching freight emissions with the purchase of carbon offsets, effectively balancing out the environmental impact of transporting a shipment.

CO2e Saved: CO2e saved is a comprehensive metric that combines the emissions avoided and those offset through carbon credits, providing an overview of the environmental impact reduction.

A commercial invoice is a crucial document in international shipping and trade.

Issued by the seller to the buyer, it serves as both a request for payment and a detailed list of goods being shipped.

This legal paper outlines the sale between two parties across borders, including descriptions, quantities, prices of the products, and essential terms like shipping costs and insurance charges.

It helps customs officials assess duties and taxes needed for clearing goods through border control.

Customs authorities require this document for every international package to verify what’s inside the shipment and its value.

Providing precise product details and buyer and seller information ensures that all traded items comply with local laws at their destination.

Common Carrier: A common carrier provides transportation services to the public without favoring any particular party and operates under regulated rates, liability limits, and service standards.

Common Authority: Common authority signifies authorization for a carrier to transport general commodities.

Comprehensive logistics refers to the detailed planning, execution, and control of the movement and storage of goods, services, and information within a supply chain from the point of origin to the point of consumption.

This approach encompasses various components such as transportation management, warehousing, inventory control, order fulfillment, supply chain management, and customer service.

Comprehensive logistics aims to optimize supply chain operations’ efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and reliability, ensuring that the right products are delivered to the right place, at the right time, and in the right condition.

A Conestoga trailer has a special tarp system that rolls back and forth.

This setup keeps goods safe during transport.

The tarp allows easy loading and unloading from the sides or top.

Named after covered wagons used by pioneers, these trailers are helpful for oversized items needing weather protection and ease of access.

They handle many types of cargo, even sensitive equipment.

Their design makes shipping simpler by allowing loading from different angles.

Conestoga trailers are a solid choice for businesses moving goods efficiently and safely in the trucking industry.

A consignee is the person or company listed on a bill of lading that receives the shipped goods.

Once it arrives, this party owns the cargo and is responsible for any import duties, customs fees, and other charges related to receiving the freight.

The role requires coordinating with manufacturers or suppliers to ensure shipments meet quality and quantity expectations.

It might also involve dealing with customs authorities using shipping documents like health certificates or bills of lading to clear their goods.

This recipient can be an agent acting on behalf of the buyer in transport transactions.

Their involvement is crucial from when a product leaves its origin until its final destination, making them key players in international commerce and supply chains.

The consignor is the one who sends goods.

This person or company hands over their products to a freight carrier.

A consignor sets the shipment in motion, trusting logistics to bridge distances.

They must ensure everything is done correctly, from paperwork like commercial invoices and shipping documents to following international trade laws.

Any mistake could delay delivery or cause problems with customs clearance.

Container: A container is a standard-sized rectangular box used for intermodal transportation, offering versatility in moving goods across different modes of transport.

Cross-docking is a warehousing operation in which goods are transferred between trucks without the need for intermediate storage, streamlining distribution.

Trucks arrive and unload goods at one side of a dock.

Quickly, these goods move to another truck on the opposite side.

They go straight to their final destination without needing storage.

This makes things faster and saves money.

This process uses little storage space and speeds up delivery.

Goods are moved efficiently with forklifts, conveyor belts, or pallet trucks.

This way, items travel directly from incoming trucks to outgoing ones without delays.

Cross-docking helps keep supply chains lean by cutting expenses while ensuring quicker customer service.

Cubic capacity is the total volume of space a shipment occupies in a truck or trailer, measured in cubic feet or cubic inches.

Businesses relying on shipping goods must know this.

The rule of thumb here is that more goods in less space equals lower transportation costs and more efficiency.

For instance, when filling a container, every inch counts.

Using precise calculations helps pack more and save on trips.

Think of it as playing Tetris with your cargo; the better you fit everything together, considering both size and weight, the more innovative you use available space — and the more money you save.

This approach reduces expenses and environmental impact by optimizing each load’s three dimensions for transportation efficiency.

A customs broker acts as a critical intermediary between businesses and the maze of international trade laws.

This licensed professional ensures that goods pass through borders smoothly, handles paperwork, pays duties, and follows the rules.

Their job is crucial because they help move products from one country to another without trouble.

Customs brokers know the ins and outs of regulations that change often.

They keep shipments on track, avoiding costly delays.

These experts are vital for anyone importing or exporting goods.

Their deep knowledge of customs processes makes global trade easier for businesses.

Deadhead: Deadhead miles are the distances covered by a driver while the vehicle is empty and without a load, typically when returning from a delivery.

Deckable freight refers to cargo that, while not in direct physical contact with each other, is strategically placed on moveable shelves or decks within a transportation unit.

This method optimizes vertical space, allowing for efficient loading and transportation of goods that require separation to prevent damage or contamination.

Moveable shelves can adjust to accommodate different sizes and shapes of cargo, providing flexibility and maximizing space usage.

This system enhances load stability, improves safety, and reduces damage risk, leading to quicker loading/unloading, operational efficiency, and cost savings.

Declared value is what a shipper claims their shipment is worth to the freight carrier.

It sets the amount for which your goods are insured during transport.

It tells the carrier, “This is my item’s value.”

Declared value plays a crucial role in shipping and logistics — boosting the standard liability limits carriers usually have.

If your package gets lost or damaged, the declared value determines how much you can claim from the carrier.

Declared Value ensures your goods have protection tailored to their worth.

Department of Transportation (D.O.T.): The Department of Transportation (DOT) for the United States regulates rules and standards pertaining to the transportation industry.

In logistics, “dims” is a common abbreviation for “dimensions.” When referring to “dims” in the context of logistics and shipping, it typically means the measurements of a package or cargo, specifically its length, width, and height. These dimensions are crucial in calculating the size and volume of shipments, which in turn helps determine shipping costs, storage space requirements, and how efficiently items can be packed and transported.

Dispatching: Dispatching involves the scheduling and control of truck pick-ups and deliveries, crucially relying on communication channels like phone, radio, or satellite to coordinate with drivers effectively.

A distribution center is key to supply chains.

They receive, store, and send products to customers or stores.

These places connect manufacturers with users, ensuring fast movement of goods from where they’re made to where they need to go.

This cuts storage costs and makes delivery more efficient.

Door to Door: Door-to-door shipping refers to the seamless movement of cargo directly from a customer’s front door (dock) to the receiver’s front door (dock), commonly known as drayage.

Double Blind Shipment: A double blind shipment is characterized by both the pickup and delivery locations being concealed from both the shipper and consignee, ensuring a high level of confidentiality.

Double Drop Deck: A double drop deck trailer is a type of flatbed with two lowered sections, typically found at the front and rear, allowing for the transportation of oversized or overweight items.

Doubles: Doubles consist of a tractor unit towing two semi-trailers connected in tandem by a converter dolly, effectively increasing the freight-carrying capacity.

Drayage is a vital part of moving goods.

It’s a short trip for cargo from one transport hub to another nearby.

This might be from a port to a rail yard or from one truck stop to another.

Short trips are vital because they connect more extended parts of shipping routes, like ocean travel and ground transport.

This service has significant benefits for businesses shipping goods over large distances.

It ensures items get where they need to go on time and at lower costs.

Plus, as more products are made and shipped around the U.S., drayage helps keep everything moving smoothly.

Without drayage, switching between ships, trains, trucks, and planes, which move cargo across counties or continents, would be difficult.

Draymen: Draymen are individuals hired to pick up or drop off containers or trailers at intermodal terminals, playing a critical role in the transportation chain.

Drive Axle: A drive axle is an axle directly powered by the engine, typically supporting the weight of the vehicle and cargo, adhering to legal weight limits.

Driver Assist: Driver assist refers to situations where draymen or drivers are required to actively participate in the loading and unloading of containers or trailers.

A drop trailer is a truck trailer that a driver leaves at a shipper’s location so it can be loaded or unloaded when it’s convenient for the receiver.

Later, either the same driver or a different one returns to collect the trailer at a scheduled time.

A drop deck flatbed is an open semi-trailer with two levels but no roof, sides, or doors.

It starts at the height of a regular flatbed near the front, where it attaches to the tractor, and then the back part is lower, providing two different heights.

A dry van is a fully enclosed trailer to protect cargo from the elements and road debris.

These trailers attach to semi-trucks, making them highly versatile for transporting long-distance, non-perishable goods.

Often used for moving large quantities of products, they are key players in the freight industry due to their ability to haul a wide variety of cargo – from boxed goods to machinery and automotive parts.

This simplicity makes dry vans popular among businesses looking for reliable transportation services without needing specialized conditions like refrigeration or open-air transport options.

They excel in delivering everything from raw materials and household items to construction equipment safely to their destination.

Dunnage: Dunnage refers to pieces of lumber or material strategically placed around freight to prevent movement and damage during transportation.

Exclusive Use: Exclusive use of a cargo van or freight truck means that the entire vehicle is dedicated to one person or company, ensuring the security and privacy of the cargo.

Expedited shipping is a specialized service that guarantees accelerated delivery for time-sensitive shipments.

This type of shipping is crucial for businesses and individuals who require faster delivery times than those offered by standard shipping methods.

In today’s fast-paced shipping environment, many companies promise delivery times as short as two days, which significantly increases the demand for efficiency in the shipping processes of both shippers and carriers.

Expedited freight services are tailored to meet these high-speed delivery demands, ensuring packages arrive at their destinations quickly and reliably.

Final Mile Delivery closes the gap between transportation hubs and your customer’s door.

It’s the last leg in the delivery process, ensuring goods land safely at their destination.

This phase of the delivery process is crucial as it directly affects customer satisfaction due to its impact on delivery speed and the condition of the goods upon arrival.

Final mile delivery can be challenging due to factors like traffic, delivery precision, and the need for additional services such as installation or setup.

A flatbed trailer is a semi-trailer with a flat deck with no sides or roof.

These versatile trailers can carry various types of cargo, such as lumber, construction materials, and heavy machinery.

They are instrumental in construction, agriculture, and manufacturing, where large and bulky items must be transported frequently.

Flatcars serve a straightforward yet critical role in freight transportation.

They consist of a flat, horizontal deck mounted on wheels, making them versatile carriers for goods.

These railroad cars are engineered to transport dimensional loads — items too tall, wide, long, or heavy for standard rail cars.

Flatcars handle everything from hefty construction machinery and military equipment to specialized aircraft parts.

Their design allows for the efficient use of space and secure cargo transportation across vast distances.

The beauty of flatcars lies in their simplicity and versatility — a true backbone in the freight transportation world.

Forklifts: Forklifts are gas-powered vehicles used for handling larger and heavier freight during full truckload shipments, typically capable of lifting loads up to 4,000 pounds.

Freight Bill: A freight bill is the carrier’s invoice detailing the payment required for transportation services rendered.

A freight broker connects companies with shipping needs to transportation services, ensuring smooth negotiations and interactions between shippers and carriers.

Freight brokers do not own any trucks or ships; their expertise lies in selecting the best carrier for each shipment’s specific requirements.

Their primary responsibilities include negotiating reasonable rates, arranging transportation, and tracking shipments.

With in-depth knowledge of shipping regulations and an extensive network of carriers, freight brokers can secure deals at lower costs than businesses might obtain independently.

Freight capacity talks about the most significant load of goods a transport can carry.

Freight capacity utilization compares the actual weight of the goods and the maximum weight that can be carried in one trip.

It’s all about fitting as much as possible into trucks, ships, or trains without exceeding limits.

By doing this well, companies save money and move things faster.

For business owners who ship goods, getting this right can make a big difference in how well things run and how much they cost.

A freight claim is when you ask a carrier to pay you back because your shipped items got lost, damaged, showed up late, or cost too much.

If you send products and they break, you use a claim to get some money back.

There are two main types of damage claims: visible damage, which you see immediately, and concealed damage, found after opening the box.

Claims aren’t always about damage; sometimes, things get lost or arrive late.

Freight Class: Freight class is a standardized measurement determined by the National Motor Freight Traffic Association (NMFTA) that categorizes shipments based on factors like density, stow-ability, handling, and liability. It ensures consistent pricing across different LTL carriers and businesses.

Freight diversion happens when goods need to change their planned path or end place while on their way.

It might occur because a shipper decides to send the cargo to a different receiver or due to unforeseen events that make the original route impossible.

This process can lead to extra fees for the additional miles covered.

This shift impacts cargo carriers’ management of loads, enforcing contracts, and adjusting real-time schedules.

Freight Payables: Freight payables refer to freight bills that need to be paid to carriers for their transportation services.

Fronthaul: Fronthaul, from the carrier’s perspective, represents the total weight of a loaded truck, which includes the combined weight of goods, fuel, packaging, pallets, tractor, and trailer.

A Full Truckload (FTL) is a shipping method in which a single shipment fills an entire truck or trailer.

This method is used when the truckload shipment is too big to be combined with other smaller shipments, known as Less Than Truckload (LTL).

Typically, these FTL trucks are about 53 feet long and can carry 20,000 pounds.

This means FTL makes the most of cargo space and cuts down on handling.

Gross Weight: Gross weight is the total weight of a vehicle, including both the vehicle itself and the payload of freight or passengers it carries.

Hazmat shipping involves transporting hazardous materials that can harm health, safety, or property.

These materials range from flammable liquids to radioactive substances and poisonous materials that require special handling to ensure they move safely from one place to another.

Adhering to strict regulations is a must, including following the Department of Transportation (DOT) guidelines.

The rules help classify hazardous materials, ensuring each shipment meets safety criteria before hitting the road.

Shipments that don’t comply pose serious risks.

Headhaul: Headhaul represents the portion of a carrier’s route where they pick up freight near their home base and transport it to a different location for delivery.

Hours of Service (HOS): Hours of service (HOS) are regulations that dictate the maximum number of hours a commercial driver is legally allowed to drive within a 24-hour period, ensuring driver safety and fatigue management.

Hub & Spoke System: The hub and spoke system is the prevailing model for transporting Less Than Truckload (LTL) shipments, involving multiple stop points and the transfer of products throughout the transportation process.

Insurance by Liability: Insurance by liability encompasses cargo and accident liability coverage, providing protection in case of damage or accidents during transportation.

Intermodal transportation involves using different methods like trucks, boats, and planes to move containers filled with goods.

This approach helps get products where they need to go more quickly and safely, reducing the chance of damage or loss.

Lane: In the context of freight, a lane refers to the specific route a shipment takes from its point of origin to its destination.

Layover: A layover occurs when a driver is required to stay for an extended period, often overnight, to await loading or unloading.

Lead Time: Lead time is the amount of time between when a client tenders a load for transportation and when it is actually picked up for delivery.

Less Than Truckload (LTL): Less Than Truckload (LTL) describes a shipment that does not require the entire capacity of a truckload trailer. It typically weighs less than 7,500 pounds and occupies less than 12 feet of trailer space.

Letter of Authority: A Letter of Authority is a license that authorizes carriers to engage in operations, both interstate and in foreign commerce.

A lift gate is a motorized platform mounted at the back of a truck or vehicle.

It uses a hydraulic system with motors, cylinders, and switches to lift or lower heavy items effortlessly.

Various liftgate types suit different vehicles and cargo requirements, enabling quick and safe transport of goods.

Their efficiency and safety make them essential for modern shipping operations.

A lift gate truck is a commercial vehicle equipped with a mechanical platform at the rear, known as a lift gate.

This platform can be raised and lowered hydraulically to facilitate the loading and unloading of goods.

Lift gate trucks are beneficial for transporting heavy or bulky items when a loading dock is unavailable.

They allow goods to be moved directly from the truck bed to the ground level.

This feature is particularly beneficial in delivery environments where manual loading and unloading would be difficult or impossible due to the weight of the cargo.

Linehaul: Linehaul is the portion of a transportation trip that occurs between the origin pick-up and the final destination delivery, typically covering inter-city distances.

Load-to-ride (LTR) refers to a freight transportation method where goods are loaded directly onto a truck at the shipping point and transported straight to the delivery destination.

This approach eliminates the need to load and unload freight at multiple terminals, unlike less-than-truckload (LTL) shipping, which involves unloading, consolidating, and reloading at various terminals.

LTR streamlines the delivery process by reducing handling and potential damage, ensuring faster and more efficient transportation.

Loading Time: Loading time represents the duration required to load a truck with cargo, a critical factor in optimizing the efficiency of transportation operations.

A logistics coordinator manages the supply chain to ensure that raw materials and products reach customers and retailers on time and accurately.

They handle everything from ordering and inventory to storage and transportation.

Essentially, logistics coordinators serve as the link between companies and consumers, making sure that all orders are fulfilled successfully.

Loose Capacity: Loose capacity occurs when there are more available trucks than there are loads to be transported, often indicative of a market with excess trucking capacity.

A lumper service is a third-party team hired to unload freight from a truck trailer, making it easier for businesses to manage inbound and outbound shipments.

These skilled workers handle everything from palletized goods to loose cargo, ensuring that goods are unloaded quickly and safely.

By outsourcing this task, warehouses can significantly cut costs while focusing on other critical operations.

With their expertise in managing unitized loads and various types of cargo, lumpers ensure that products reach retailers without delay or damage.

Managed services refer to outsourcing specific business processes and functions to a third-party provider to improve operations and reduce expenses.

This arrangement allows businesses to delegate tasks such as shipping and logistics to specialists who provide ongoing support and management.

Managed services enhance business operations’ efficiency, reliability, and scalability, enabling companies to focus more on their core activities and strategic goals while relying on experts to handle operational complexities.

Mileage: Mileage is a cost factor in the freight industry determined by the number of miles a shipment travels, influencing the overall transportation expenses.

MC Number: The Motor Carrier Number (MC Number) is a unique identifier assigned to carriers and third-party logistics (3PL) providers, allowing them to operate across state lines and be tracked by regulatory authorities.

Multi-Stop: Multi-stop shipments contain more than one pick-up or drop-off location, requiring multiple stops for the completion of the delivery.

NMFC: The National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC) is a standardized classification system used to categorize freight based on characteristics like density, handling requirements, and liability.

Net Weight: Net weight is the weight obtained by subtracting the weight of the tractor-trailer from the total weight of the truck and its cargo.

No Touch: No-touch freight refers to cargo that does not require the driver to load or unload the products, streamlining the transportation process.

NOI: NOI stands for “Not Otherwise Indexed” and refers to a product or shipment that doesn’t have a specific freight class assigned. Its classification often depends on factors like density.

An Open Deck is a flat surface without walls attached to a truck for moving goods.

This method uses large vehicles, often called flatbed trailers or railcars, to move oversized items that don’t fit inside standard trucks.

Goods such as construction materials, heavy machinery like cranes and forklifts, and oversized freight find their place here.

It’s ideal because these loads can be too wide, tall, or heavy for other shipping ways.

Over-Dimensional: Over-dimensional shipments are those that exceed standard size or weight limits and require special permits and handling, which may vary by state or jurisdiction.

An “oversize load truck” refers to a truck that exceeds the standard legal dimensions (width, height, or length) set by local, state, or federal public transportation regulations.

These loads often require special permits and may need accompanying escort vehicles for safety and regulatory compliance.

Oversized loads can include large equipment, machinery, prefabricated homes, or other large structures that cannot be broken down into smaller pieces for transport.

Pallet: A pallet is a portable platform, typically measuring 48×48 inches, designed to hold goods and enable easy handling with forklifts or pallet jacks.

Pallet Jacks: Pallet jacks are manual or electric tools used for lifting and moving pallets within a warehouse or during loading and unloading operations.

Partial Truckload (PTL): Partial truckload shipments are larger than LTL but smaller than full truckload (FTL) shipments, offering a balance between cost-effectiveness and cargo capacity.

The ability to adjust the pickup time and location of cargo according to the shipper’s or receiver’s requirements.

This flexibility allows businesses to better manage their inventory and production schedules, reduce waiting times, and optimize transportation resources.

It helps manage unexpected changes in supply chain operations or accommodate last-minute requests, enhancing overall efficiency and customer satisfaction.

PO (Purchase Order): A purchase order (PO) is a buyer’s formal authorization used to initiate and document a purchase transaction with a supplier.

Private Carrier: A private carrier is a transportation provider that operates vehicles owned or leased by the company itself, typically not charging fees for services rendered.

PRO#: PRO# stands for “Pro Number” and is a carrier-assigned number used to uniquely identify a specific shipment within their tracking and documentation system.

Proof of Delivery (POD): Proof of Delivery (POD) is a document provided by the carrier containing essential information, such as the name of the recipient who signed for the shipment, the delivery time and date, and other relevant delivery-related details.

Pup Trucks: Pup trucks are trailers ranging from 26 to 29 feet in length and can be used either individually for local deliveries or in combination with another trailer for long-haul transportation.

Receiving Dock: The receiving dock is a designated location where products are unloaded from trucks or trailers upon arrival at a facility.

Reconsignment: Reconsignment occurs when a customer requests a change in the name and delivery location of the consignee while the shipment is en route. An additional charge may apply for this service.

A reefer truck is a semi-truck with a refrigerated trailer designed to transport goods that must be kept at specific temperatures.

The term “reefer” comes from “refrigerator.” These trucks are ideal for moving perishable items like fresh fruits, frozen food, medicines, and flowers, requiring controlled temperatures during transport.

Reefer trucks are critical in temperature-controlled transportation.

They form an integral part of the cold chain logistics, connecting producers with markets across vast distances without risking product quality.

Carrier refrigeration refers to the systems used on trucks, ships, and other transport vehicles to control the temperature of their cargo.

This type of refrigeration is essential for ensuring that perishable goods like food, flowers, and pharmaceuticals remain fresh and safe during transit.

These systems use advanced technology to maintain a constant, cool environment inside the cargo area, adapting to outside temperatures and travel conditions to prevent spoilage.

Reverse logistics is a critical supply chain management strategy that involves the movement of goods from customers back to manufacturers or sellers.

This technique encompasses various processes, including returning, recycling, repurposing, repairing, and reselling products.

By effectively managing these activities, businesses can enhance customer satisfaction, reduce environmental impact, and recover value from returned or unused products.

Implementing reverse logistics supports sustainable business practices and helps companies optimize their inventory and resource utilization, making it an essential component of modern supply chain operations.

Shared Truckload (STL): Shared truckload (STL) is a freight mode that allows multiple shippers to share trailer space in a single full truckload shipment, optimizing transportation efficiency.

Sidekit: A sidekit is a type of flatbed trailer equipped with specially fitted side plates and curved ribs that support a tarp covering, providing additional cargo protection.

A single drop trailer, also known as a step deck trailer, features a platform that drops down after the front section and stays flat until the end.

This allows it to carry tall items that wouldn’t fit on a standard flatbed due to height restrictions.

It’s designed for easy side loading with a forklift or via built-in ramps, making it suitable for large, heavy items like machinery or construction materials.

This trailer type is closer to the ground than regular flatbeds, facilitating the transportation of up to 10-foot-tall loads.

Skid: A skid is a portable platform, measuring 48×40 inches, accessible from two sides and designed to hold goods for easy handling with equipment like forklifts or pallet jacks.

Sort and Seg: Sort and Seg stands for “Sort and Segregate” and is a process in which the driver, lumpers, or dock workers count every case on a pallet upon receipt to verify that all shipped goods have reached their destination.

A Sprinter van is a versatile commercial vehicle.

It is larger and taller than typical minivans, offering spacious interiors and high roofs.

It’s ideal for businesses like courier services, plumbing, and electrical repairs due to its ample cargo space and adaptability for various service needs.

Stackable Freight: Stackable freight refers to cargo that can be safely stacked on top of one another, optimizing space utilization during transportation.

Super Sack: A super sack is a large tote bag, primarily used for transporting bulk commodities like grains, corn, or rice.

Swing Doors: Swing doors are trailer doors that must be opened before backing up to a dock and allow for the transportation of taller products.

Tailgate: Tailgating occurs when a driver is required to bring cargo to the back of the trailer, often necessary when the receiver lacks a loading dock or forklift.

Team Driver: Team drivers are pairs or groups of two or more drivers who share driving duties and operate the same truck in shifts, enabling continuous movement of the vehicle, often used for time-sensitive freight.

Temperature-controlled logistics involves managing shipping and storage conditions to maintain a regulated temperature through built-in systems or external appliances.

This process encompasses the monitoring and adjusting of heat energy entering or leaving a product or environment to sustain a specific temperature range.

In logistics, temperature control ensures that goods such as perishable food, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals are transported optimally to preserve quality and integrity.

This system relies on sophisticated technology to constantly measure and adjust temperatures throughout the transportation and storage phases, ensuring that products remain within safe temperature thresholds from origin to destination.

Terminal: A terminal is a facility or dock where freight is sorted and redistributed onto different trucks, serving as a crucial hub in the transportation network.

NMFTA: The National Motor Freight Traffic Association (NMFTA) provides expertise in freight classification, packaging standards, and transportation codes, contributing to industry standardization.

A 3PL, or third-party logistics provider, controls a company’s supply chain functions.

This service includes storing goods in warehouses, picking and packing products, and shipping customer orders.

Companies outsource these tasks to focus more on their core business operations while leaving logistics complexities to experts.

The process starts when a business hands over its inventory management and product delivery duties to a 3PL provider.

Tote: A tote is a container commonly used for packaging chemicals and other substances during transportation.

Trans-loading: Trans-loading is the process of transferring cargo from one mode of transportation to another, enabling seamless movement across various transportation methods.

Transit Time: Transit time represents the total duration from the pick-up of a shipment to its delivery, excluding the day of pick-up, weekends, and holidays.

A truckload refers to the quantity of freight sufficient to fill an entire truck.

Alternatively, it can describe a shipment that takes up nearly all the space in a truck.

This term differentiates the shipping and logistics industry from less-than-truckload (LTL) shipping, where smaller shipments from multiple customers are consolidated into a single truck.

Truckload shipping is typically used for larger shipments that must be transported directly from the sender to the receiver without intermediate stops or handling.

Volume LTL: Volume Less Than Truckload (LTL) refers to partial loads serviced by LTL carriers, accommodating shipments that are larger than standard LTL but not requiring a full truckload.

White glove shipping services refer to exceptionally high-quality service or care.

White glove delivery services cater to items that require extra attention during shipping because they are significant, valuable, or delicate.

This premium service offers much more than dropping goods at a doorstep.

Teams use special equipment, such as padded vans, to prevent damage.

They also provide extra services such as product assembly and packing with bubble wrap or packing peanuts, which standard delivery options do not offer.

The goal is to deliver items in perfect condition, ensuring everything arrives safely and on time.

Wholesale logistics encompasses the comprehensive management, coordination, and execution of all processes related to the movement and storage of goods within the wholesale sector.

This includes critical aspects such as inventory management, transportation, warehousing, and order fulfillment.

The efficiency of these logistics processes ensures that products are delivered accurately and on time, which is vital for maintaining the flow of goods from distributors to retailers and other buyers in the wholesale industry.

A wide load refers to any vehicle or combination carrying cargo that exceeds the standard legal dimensions — typically in width — set by road regulations.

These oversized loads require special permits to travel on public roads and additional safety measures, such as escort vehicles, to ensure safe transport.